新西兰选举英文术语对照表

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新西兰的大选马上就要到来,新西兰的选举制度虽然在全世界使用了比较少见的MMP制度,不过在选举的基本规则和术语使用上都与西方民主国家相一致。学习一些有关于大选的英文术语,对于提高英文大选新闻中的理解能力大有裨益,本文转自于BBC中文网。其中少数在新西兰大选中并不使用,但是大部分单词和词组都适用于新西兰选举。

Absentee ballot 缺席选票 A vote cast by someone who cannot reach a polling station. Can be postal or by proxy (see below). 选民无法亲自前往投票站时邮寄或者请人代投自己的选票。

Agent竞选经理 A person who represents candidates in their dealings with the electoral authorities and runs their campaigns. 代表候选人与选举机构打交道以及组织竞选活动的个人。

Ballot 投票 Another term for vote. 与vote意义相同

Ballot box 票箱 Sealed box with a slit in the lid, into which voters place their ballot papers. 密封的箱子,盖子上有一个事先开好的小口。选民将标好的选票投入其中。

Ballot paper 选票 Paper containing a list of all candidates standing in a constituency. Voters mark their choice with a cross. 上面印有候选人名字,选民在自己选中的候选人名字旁边划X。

Battlebus 战车 A vehicle used by a party to transport its leader or other senior figures around the country to rallies or to meet the people. 竞选过程中政党领袖用以周游全国争取选民支持的交通工具。

Base voters 基本盘选民,指的是无论何种情况下坚定支持某一党派的选民

Beehive 蜂巢 – 指的是新西兰的国会大厦(外形如蜂巢)

By-election 补选 An election held between general elections, usually because the sitting MP has died or resigned. 两次大选之间举行的选举,通常是因为原议员辞职或去世。

Cabinet 内阁 The group of senior ministers at the head of the government. 由数名高级部长组成,是政府的最高权力机构。

Candidate 候选人 Someone putting themselves up for election. Once Parliament has been dissolved, there are no MPs, only candidates. 代表某一政党竞选国会议员席位的人。议会解散时,”议员”不复存在,只有候选人。

Canvassing 游说 During a campaign, active supporters of a party ask voters who they will vote for and try to drum up support for their own candidates. 竞选过程中,政党的支持者询问选民的投票意向、争取选民对自己政党候选人的支持。

Coalition 联合政府 When two or more parties govern together, when neither has an overall majority. Coalitions are very rare in Westminster; the last was the administration led by Winston Churchill during the Second World War. The Liberals propped up the last years of the Labour Government of 1974-9, but did not actually take a part in its running. 两个或两个以上没有多数席位的政党联合组成的政府。

Constituency 选区 The geographical unit which elects a single MP. There will be 646 in the UK after the election. 选举产生一名国会议员的地理区域。本次大选共有646个选区选出相同数量的议员。

Dissolution of Parliament 解散议会 The act of ending a Parliament. 大选前一个月解散议会。

Election expenses  竞选经费 Candidates are only allowed to spend a limited amount of money on their individual campaign. Accounts must be submitted after the poll proving they did not exceed this limit. 候选人只可以花费一定数量的经费用于个人的竞选活动。投票结束后必须向有关单位提交账目,以证实自己没有超支。

Electoral register 选民登记 A list of all those in a constituency entitled to vote. Also known as electoral roll. 所有有投票权的选民的名单,也可以被称作electoral roll。

Exit poll 投票站民意调查 A poll asking people how they have voted just after they have left the polling station. 选民投票之后离开投票站时,有关单位询问他们的投票意向并据此预测出选举结果。

First past the post 简单多数票当选 It means a candidate only needs a simple majority – more votes than his or her rivals – to be elected. 每一个选民只能投一票给一个候选人,在这个选区内获得票数最多的候选人当选。

Franchise 选举权 The right to vote. Now available to those over 18 and on the electoral register. 选举权。年满18岁、在选民登记册注册的人享有投票权。

General election 大选

Hung parliament 无多数议会 If after an election no party has an overall majority, then parliament is said to be “hung”. The main parties will then try to form a coalition with one or more of the minor parties. 如果大选之后出现没有任何一个政党获得议会中绝对多数席位的情况,这时议会被称作”无多数议会”。主要政党会寻求其他小党的支持组成联合政府。

Landslide 压倒优势 The name given to an election which one party wins by a very large margin. 指的是某一政党在大选中以明显优势获得胜利。

Manifesto 竞选纲领 A public declaration of a party’s ideas and policies, usually printed during the campaign. Once in power, a government is often judged by how many of its manifesto promises it manages to deliver. 政党的方针以及政策,通常在竞选过程中出版。一旦当选,人们通常会以执政党兑现了多少竞选纲领中的承诺来判断政府的业绩。

Marginal constituencies 优势微弱选区 Seats where the gap between the two or more leading parties is relatively small. Often regarded as less than a 10% margin ie requiring a swing of 5% or less, though very dependent on prevailing political conditions. 指的是特定选区内两个或两个以上政党之间的选民支持率相差无几。一般情况下指的是某一方的优势小于10%,也就是说,5%或者低于5%的选民改变投票意向 即可左右大选结果。优势微弱选区的选举结果在相当大的程度上取决于总体政局。

Minority government  少数党政府 A government formed by a party which does not have an absolute majority in the House. 由在议会下院不占绝对多数席位的政党组成的政府。

MMP Mixed Member Proportional 制度 混合成员比例选举制度下,每个拥有选举权的选民,有“两张票”的选举权,一张投政党、一张投自己所居住的选区的议员(国会议员)。政党进入国会有两个方法,第一是自己的“党员”赢得所在选区,第二是这个政党能够获得全国至少百分之五的选票数量(通常只有国家党、工党、绿党、优先党有此机会,2020年选举行动党也加入这个能力)。

MP Member of Parliament :国会议员(简称MP) Strictly this includes members of the House of Lords, but in practice means only members of the House of Commons. When an election is called Parliament is dissolved and there are no more MPs until it assembles again. 严格来讲,议员也包括上院议员,但实际上说起议员一般指的只是下院议员。竞选开始之后,议会解散,议员也就不复存在了,直到大选之后议会重新召集为止。

Nomination papers:提名单 A candidate must be nominated on these documents by 10 voters living in the constituency. 候选人必须获得选区内至少10名选民的提名支持。

Opinion poll :民意调查 A survey asking people’s opinion on one or more issues. In an election campaign, the key question is usually about which party people will vote for. 就一个或多个问题调查选民的看法。在竞选过程中,最重要的一个问题通常是”你将投哪一个政党的票”。

Opposition :反对党 The largest party not in government is known as the official opposition. It receives extra parliamentary funding in recognition of its status. 规模最大的在野党。反对党可以获得追加的活动经费。

Party Election Broadcast (PEB):政党竞选广播 Broadcasts made by the parties and transmitted on TV or radio. By agreement with the broadcasters, each party is allowed a certain number according to its election strength and number of candidates fielded. 竞选过程中由各政党制作、在电视或者电台播出的宣传节目。根据与电视台、电台达成的协议,每一个政党都可以获得一定的竞选广播时段。广播时段多少以该党参 加竞选的候选人人数以及在上次大选中的的票率来决定。

Personation :假冒 The offence of impersonating someone else in order to use their vote. 冒充别人投票,是犯罪行为。

Poll :投票,大选 Another term for vote or election. 与vote或者election意义相同。

Polling clerk :投票站检查员 The person in the polling station who checks the electoral register to verify that the voter is eligible to cast his vote and at that particular polling station. 在投票站负责监督投票的工作人员。他们根据选民登记,查验前来投票的人是否有权、是否应该在该投票站投票。

Polling day:投票日。 Election day. 也就是大选日。

Polling station :投票站 Location where people go to cast their votes. 选民前往投票的地点。

Postal vote:邮寄投票 People unable to get to a polling station are allowed to vote by post if they apply in advance. They are also allowed a proxy vote. 无法亲自前往投票站的人,经过事先申请,可以获得邮寄投票,也可以请人代替投票。

Proportional representation :比例代表制 Systems of voting which aim to give parties the representation in a parliament justified by their level of voting support. 该制度旨在争取在选举中,政党获得的议会席位的比例与所得选票的比例相符合。

Prorogation:休会 The act of ending a session of Parliament. Performed when an election is called. 竞选开始后议会解散。

Presiding officer:投票站监票官 The person responsible for ensuring the conduct of the ballot in polling stations. They have to ensure that ballot boxes are kept secure and are responsible for transferring them safely to the count. 负责监察投票站的运转。他们必须确保票箱的安全,确保将票箱安全地运抵点票地点。

Proxy vote :代替投票 People unable to get to a polling station are allowed to appoint someone to vote on their behalf if they apply in advance. They are also allowed a postal vote. 无法亲自前往投票站投票的人经过事先申请可以获准委派别人代替投票或者以邮寄的形式投票。

Psephology 选举学 The study of voting and voting patterns. 研究投票的学科。

Recount  重新点票 If a result is close, any candidate may ask for a recount. The process can be repeated several times if necessary until the candidates are satisfied. The returning officer has the final say on whether a recount takes place. 如果投票结果非常接近,任何一名候选人都可以要求重新点票。必要的情况下,选票可以重新清点数次,直至所有候选人都满意为止。选区选物官有权决定是否重新 点票。

Referendum 全民公投 A binding vote of the whole country on a single issue. 全国人民就特定议题投票做出决定。

Returning officer 选务官 The official in charge of elections in each of the constituencies. 每一个选区负责选举工作的官员。

Safe seat  安全席位 A constituency in which the holding party has a big lead to defend. Often regarded as being a margin of 15-20% or more. 拥有某选区席位的政党占有较大优势,通常指该党支持率领先对手15-20%。

Speaker 议长 An MP elected by other members of the Commons to chair debates and deal with the running of the Commons. By tradition, an MP who is Speaker is not opposed by any of the main parties at elections. 由议员选出,主持议会辩论以及议会日常工作。大选中,其他政党不参加他所代表席位的竞选。

Spin 舆论导向 The attempt to place a favourable interpretation on an event so that people or the media will interpret it in that way. Those performing this act are known as spin doctors. 影响和争取公众和媒体以积极的态度诠释某一事件。负责舆论导向工作的人被称作”舆论导向医生”。

Spoiled ballots  无效选票 Ballot papers which have been filled in incorrectly. The returning officer has the final say over whether any paper not marked with a single cross is valid. 选票填写有误。选务官有权最终决定没有按规定画X的选票是有效。

Swing 游离 The transfer of votes from one party to another. The actual transfer is complicated, so usually taken to mean between the top two parties in any seat or area. 选民转投另一个政党的票。因为很难准确地判断”游离选民”转而支持其他政党的具体数字,因此游离一般都只指竞选某一个席位或者某一个地区内,领先的两个政 党之间选民的投票意向变化。

Tactical voting 战略票 This is when people vote not for the party they really support, but for another party in order to keep out a more disliked rival. 选民不是投自己支持政党的票,而是转投另外一个政党的票,以阻止自己最不喜欢的政党当选。

Target seats 目标席位 In theory, any seat that a party contests and held by a rival is one of its targets. In practice, a target seat is one that a party believes it can win and puts a lot of effort into doing so. 从理论上说,政党参加竞选的所有席位都是目标席位。但实际生活中,目标席位指的是一个政党认为自己有赢得某一个特定席位的可能性,因此在该选区特别努力。

Tellers 监票员 Representatives of parties who wait outside polling stations and ask people for their number on the electoral roll. This is to help the parties ensure all their supporters have voted. Tellers have no official status and no-one is obliged to give them any information. 各政党请来在投票站外询问投票者”选民登记号”的人。这样做的目的是为了政党确保自己所有的支持者都参加投票。名为监票员,其实没有任何正式权力,因此, 选民不必告诉他们自己的登记号或者任何其他信息。

Turnout  投票率 The number or percentage of people eligible to vote who actually do so. 真正参加投票的人占选民总数的比例。

Writs of election 选举令 Once Parliament has been dissolved, a writ of election is issued for each constituency formally announcing the poll. 议会解散之后,向各个选区发放的通知大选日的正式文件。

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